Utility Usage And Cost Reduction Analysis


Valquest provides a variety of consulting services related to the operation, analysis and management of facilities. Primary clients are owners, developers and managers of commercial, institutional and industrial facilities. Areas of corporate specialty include Facilities Operations, Engineering, Energy Systems Management and Analysis, Value Analysis, Life Cycle Costing, Energy Auditing, Analysis and Allocation services. Valquest’s corporate objective is to provide services which result in facilities with enhanced systems control, reduced operating costs and improved revenue and cash flow.

Principals of Valquest have extensive experience in the performance of energy audit, analysis and allocation activities. This experience includes such diverse projects as schools, hospitals, manufacturing plants, office facilities and shopping centers. To date, principals of Valquest have been involved in energy audit and analysis on over 200 commercial and industrial facilities. Valquest has developed and maintains specialized forms for the efficient auditing and tabulation of energy load information. Valquest has also developed energy simulation software which result in energy segmentations and therefore facilitates energy analysis and control. This software, as well as Carrier E20-II and DOE-II, energy simulation programs will be used during the course of this program to develop energy cost reduction recommendations and alternatives.

Energy Analysis Approach And Methodology


Operating efficiency is determined by the three basic systems which make up any functioning building. These are: “Energized Systems”, such as those required for heating, cooling ventilation, conveyance, lighting and office equipment, etc.; “Non-Energized Systems”, such as walls, floors, ceilings, roof, windows, etc.; and “Human Systems”, comprising maintenance, operating and management personnel. This analysis will include “Energized Systems”, “Non-Energized” Systems” and “Human Systems” which are under the direct control of the occupants of the space. The base heating, cooling and ventilation supplied by the Landlord will be excluded.

The objective of the proposed energy analysis is to document the current operating cost efficiency and utility usage and to produce a report which documents the various systems, summarizes the interaction between systems and identifies energy cost reduction alternatives. In addition, the report will include recommendations on additions and/or modifications to equipment, controls or procedures which will result in reduced operating cost and increased overall energy efficiency.


The approach taken during the course of this energy analysis will be composed of three phases as follows:


Lighting, Equipment and HVAC System/Controls Documentation:

This phase consists of performing on-site energy audits and instantaneous current/voltage measurements of all energy consuming elements within the leased areas occupied by ________________. An inspection of control systems for lighting, and supplemental cooling will be conducted. _____________________ personnel will be interviewed to arrive at occupancy profiles and the standard operating procedures used for control of lighting and equipment. The information will be organized on specialized energy load forms which include provisions for operating hour and thermostatic diversities. Energy load forms will be prepared for both building operating and non-operating hours and result in a lighting and miscellaneous equipment integrated demand (KW) and cooling load (MBTUH). Integrated demand and cooling loads will then be combined with information on the manual and/or automatic system controls to establish operating profiles for the various loads within the space.


Energy Profile Generation

Diversified loads for building operating/non-operating hours and energy load profiles will be entered into an energy simulation program. This program considers all primary variables which affect energy consumption at this location. Some of the variables considered, include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. Local climatological data, based upon hour-by-hour average annual temperature and humidity profiles available from the Engineering Weather Data, Air Force Manual 88-29, average city water temperature from historical sources.
  2. Local solar energy radiation characteristics (effective integration is attained by utilizing cloud cover data available from ASHRAE to account for specific atmospheric density conditions).
  3. Specific physical thermal characteristics of the facility obtained from on-site inspections.
  4. Internal load characteristics of the facility, including occupancy profiles, equipment operating parameters and thermostatic diversities.
  5. Specific operating characteristics of the facility.

Energy Segmentation and Analysis:

The calculated usage profiles will be separated into the following categories:


Electric Rate Review:

Applicable local electric rates will be reviewed to establish a base for evaluating the relative impact of consumption and demand as they relate to reduction of electricity costs. The information obtained from this review coupled with energy reduction alternatives will facilitate the preparation of cost reduction alternatives with the greatest energy cost benefit.


Using the results of the total building energy analysis, potential energy cost reduction alternatives will be developed. These may include lighting modifications/replacements, changes in operations, automatic light switching based upon occupancy and natural lighting, or any combination of the above. After the list of cost reduction alternatives has been prepared, they will be ranked in order of greatest cost benefit, highest energy reduction and lowest investment cost. A final report will be submitted which will include all energy cost improvement alternatives and recommendations. The Final Report will also include a narrative on the building envelope, the lighting systems, the general design and operation equipment and supplemental cooling systems.